Sunday, September 30, 2007

Hydro-electric Miniature


We, the Researchers made this investigatory Project, the hydro-electric miniature as a source of information of other way in getting electricity. We use only various materials so we will not buy an expensive material in making this Project.

The good thing in this Project are, it is not hard to prepare and it easy to construct. You can follow the procedure given by the researchers easily.

Based on our observations, the miniature we made cannot make electricity. It shows how the flowing water makes electricity. But if you follow our recommendations you can make electricity. This miniature are made only to inform people how will the water make electricity.

We therefore conclude that the hydro-electric miniature we made is successful and it also illustrates how the water makes electricity.


We would like to thank the following for helping us making this investigatory project:

To our Physics Teacher Mrs. Arlinda Domingo for giving us important information in making this Project

To our parents who in one way or another is always behind us in the time of needs

And most especially to our Almighty God, for giving us the strength, faith, talent and ability in everything we do.


There are many ways how to get electricity. There are 5 source of electricity. One of the ways is the hydro-electricity which is being gained in flowing or falling water. So we the researchers construct a little miniature to show how water can provide electricity to us people.

Background of the Study

The idea of harvesting power from moving water is not new or a modern idea at all. It has existed in some form since the Greeks and Romans used water-powered mills to grind corn. Modern hydroelectric power plants are much more complex than the original ancient mills, but the same concept that once ground corn is now used to supply electricity to urban and rural areas almost all over the world. Almost everywhere you look, people are harvesting energy from moving water. This promising form of energy production has become more popular in recent years as the power of choice in many countries for many reasons. Waterpower is clean, safe, and it reduces the dependence on fossil fuels, thus benefiting the environment.

Hydroelectric power plants today are a marvel of human ingenuity. For a power plant to be successful, the entire landscape of an area must be changed. The first step to building a power plant is to build a dam. This is important because the dam creates a huge reservoir from which power can be harvested. This greatly increases the dependability of these power plants. The water behind the dam flows into conduits called penstocks. These penstocks control the flow of water so the correct amount of electricity is generated. The penstocks lead the water to the turbines and out through the tailrace. The swift current spins the turbines at an incredible speed. The spinning generators generate the electricity that is harvested from the moving water.

Nowadays people rely on electricity in most of their activities. Electricity becomes people’s way of life or else their life becomes dull. There is question as to the source of electricity but what makes the difference is how dependable and nature friendly are the mode of producing the electricity. Based on this information, the hydro electric power plant fit this criterion. But the question is, are there mini-hydro electric plant that exist today? It is from this question that the researchers want to know if the small flowing water in the barrios can be collected to make or develop a mini-hydro electric power plant.

Statement of the Problem

This Investigatory Project aim to determine if it is possible to produce electricity in a barrio using the small flowing water in their area which they think of no used to them. Specifically, it will seek answers to the following question:

  1. Are there small flowing water in the nearby barrios?
  2. Is it possible to develop a mini-hydro-electric power plant using the concept of a miniature hydro-electric power plant?
  3. Can a miniature hydro-electric power plant produced electricity which can be the basis to develop a mini-hydro-electric power plant.

Significance of the Study

This Investigatory will be significant to the following:

For students, who didn’t know that water can be use to produce electricity. This will help them understand that even a simple idea can be made to create big things such as falling or flowing waters converted into electricity.

For people learn that there is an alternative source of electricity much less expensive.

For business people who owns lands near a barrio with a flowing river or falls, may find this bright idea as another business opportunity.

Scope and Delimitation

The Investigatory Project will try to determine the possibility of producing electricity in the barrio using the small flowing water in their area. However, because of time constraint, the researcher intends to limit their investigation on the miniature hydro-electric power plant which can be use as the basis to develop a mini-hydro electric plant.

Definition of Terms

Electricity- It refers to a fundamental form of energy observable in positive and negative forms that occurs naturally (as in lightning) or is produced (as in a generator) and that is expressed in terms of the movement and interaction of electrons, electric current or power.

Hydro-electricity- refers to the electricity produced by hydropower plants.

Hydro power- refers to the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose.

Review of Related Literature

According to Christopher Weaver (1985), Electricity can be generated from the power of flowing water. Hydroelectric generating plants come in many sizes from huge plants that produce more electricity than most countries can use, to very small plants that supply electricity for a single house. Hydroelectric plants which supply electric power ranges from about 15 kilowatts to 15,000 kilowatts are called mini-hydroelectric or mini-hydro. Other phrases that mean the same thing are "small-scale hydro" and "small hydro. According to him, fifteen kilowatts is about the amount of power used by seven or eight houses in the industrial countries, or by a very small manufacturing plant, or it can provide lighting and other basic services for a village of 50-80 houses. He further stated that fifteen-thousand kilowatts is enough for a medium-sized town and that hydro plants which are larger than 15,000 kilowatts are usually called "large hydro" or "conventional hydro" plants, but there is no sharp line dividing "mini-hydro" from "large hydro." He said that all mini-hydro and large hydroelectric plants use similar machinery, and work in the same way and that power plant of either type need specially manufactured machinery, and must be designed by trained engineers. He contend that both types of plants are also fairly expensive and because of this, mini-hydro plants are not well-suited to village-level development in most cases, a larger organization such as a town, a collection of villages, or an industrial plant is usually needed. He said that another type of hydro plant which he called it as "micro-hydro," is a better suited to village level development and local self-help projects. These plants he said are usually smaller than 15 kilowatts, and can be built by people without much special training, using mostly local materials and skills. He also said that Micro-hydro plants are usually very low in cost, but they are less efficient, and the quality of the electricity is not as good. He claimed that micro-hydro plants are suited to running lights, small motors, and electric cookers in isolated

From the 2006-2007 UNDP report, Nicaragua being one of the poorest countries in the world, is on UNDP’s list of priority countries for an investment project to build and develop a mini hydro power plant and thus reduce the reliability on diesel fuel. The project also aims to develop and promote rural electrification, and is a potential Clean Development Mechanism project under the Kyoto Protocol.

The e7 seeks to form a joint venture with the local electric company to develop the project. The main Nicaraguan governmental entities have expressed their support to the initiative. In a Memorandum of Understanding signed in October 2003, the Government of Nicaragua, the UNDP and the e7 agreed to co-operate and mobilise all necessary resources for the following objectives:

  • Make Nicaragua less dependent on the diesel fuel,
  • Reduce atmospheric emissions of fossil-fuel emissions and greenhouse gases on a local and global scale,
  • Promote small-scale, power generation and distribution systems with renewable energies,
  • Protect bio-diversity,
  • Increase the local population’s access to renewable energy and energy services,
  • Demonstrate a model of replication in the region,
  • Develop public awareness of effective demand side management and energy conservation practices.

The installed facility, a 1.3 MW hydro power plant, would be connected to the national electricity grid both to allow the sale of any surplus energy generated and to ensure a backup in case of generation failure. A local network would be constructed to supply electricity to approximately 1800 ’urban’ households and a majority of homes in the countryside





Clay soil or Ordinary soil


Home made turbine



Small houses


  1. Prepare all the materials needed.
  2. Make a turbine
  3. Make a dam using a plywood with the length of 12 inches long, and with the width of 9 inches long, and with the height of 4 inches,
  4. Arrange the materials in their position
  5. Put the turbine below the dam so when the water fall the turbine catches the water then,
  6. Use an aerator to push the water goes back to the dam so that the water will circulate to the miniature.
  7. Make sure that the turbine is in proper place so the water falls on it.
  8. The water will be the one to make the turbine work.
  9. Finally make some small houses using box of the match and use clay to make the miniature beautiful.


Based on our observations, the miniature we made cannot make electricity. It shows how the flowing water makes electricity. The miniature we made is only to inform people how will the water make electricity.


We recommend that in making a hydro-electric miniature, you may make a turbine with magnet, copper wire and a light bulb to test how much electricity the miniature can made.


We therefore conclude that the hydro-electric miniature we made is successful and it also illustrates how the water makes electricity.